Archive for the ‘Uncategorised’ Category

How To Maintain A Positive Attitude

July 3rd, 2016 No comments


How To Maintain A Positive Attitude

  1. Become mindful of your thoughts and let them occur without judgment. As you recognize self-limiting beliefs and feelings, eliminate them by focusing on positive thoughts about the present and future.
  1. “Reflect upon your present blessings,of which every man has many – not on your past misfortunes, of which all men have some.” Don’t brood over mistakes, carry grudges, or harbor hate.
  1. Worrying is a wasted effort and the breeding ground of doubt. It will lead you to contemplate potential losses rather than effective solutions. The antidote to worry is positive action.
  2. Adversity comes to each of us in time. Expecting rather than dreading this adversity can make challenging periods seem less daunting and will allow you to accept that you possess the strength to conquer each obstacle as you have conquered obstacles in your past.
  1.  Assume that hidden in every setback there is a lesson. Consciously choose to think of the challenges you face in a positive way: as a learning experience, an opportunity to demonstrate your strengths, or the first step on a new path.
  2.  Think about what you desire, not what you fear. Visualize future successes with the belief that you will achieve them, and then take action. When you are working diligently toward a goal, there will not be time to ponder the obstacles.
  3.  When negative thoughts and feelings threaten to overwhelm you, take a “time out” and do something that makes you happy. Letting yourself be swept away in a favorite activity or meditation will inspire well-being.
  4.  Be confident that no matter what adversity you face, you will be strong enough to remain positive and optimistic. Knowing that there is no obstacle you cannot overcome will give you that strength.

Qualities of Manager

June 23rd, 2016 No comments

Qualities of Manager

manager 1


Learn how to choose what to delegate, match employee and delegated assignment, and set the stage for success by both developing your employees and freeing up your time for critical managerial tasks.

Goal Setting:


Learn how to set realistic goals, prioritize tasks, and track milestones to improve performance and morale.
Managing Upward:


Learn insight into developing a mutually rewarding relationship, with skills for communicating and negotiating with your manager, presenting problems or opportunities to your supervisor and accepting responsibility for your proposed actions.
Meeting Management:


Learn about planning and conducting meetings from start to finish; preparation, keeping the meeting on track, and follow-up and dealing with problem behaviors exhibited by meeting participants.
New Manager Transitions:


Learn what it means to be a manager, as well as how to navigate the complex and often stressful transition from individual contributor to a new manager.
Presentation Skills:


Learn about preparing and delivering presentations that command attention, persuade, and inspire, rehearsal techniques, creating and using more effective visuals, understanding your objectives and your audience to create a presentation with impact.
Stress Management:


Learn the difference between positive stress that enhances productivity and negative stress that breeds tension, lowers productivity, and undercuts job satisfaction, strategies for dealing with underlying causes of worry and stress, tactical coping mechanisms for immediate problem management.

Time Management:


Learn how to analyze how you currently spend your time and pinpoint opportunities for improvement, set goals, prioritize tasks, plan your time efficiently using scheduling tools, control time-wasters, and evaluate your schedule once it is underway.
Writing Skills:


Learn how to accomplish your business objectives and extends your influence as a manager, create clearer, more effective written communications, guidelines for preparing memos, letters, emails, and other common business documents.
Career Management:


Learn how to manage your career–including how to identify your business interests, professional values, and skills in order to target your most exciting career possibilities.
Change Management:


Learn how to manage change constructively and navigate the ups and downs that inevitably accompany a change effort.


Learn how to strengthen your coaching skills to facilitate the professional growth of the employees you coach.
Developing Employees:


Learn how to encourage your employees to learn and grow, while maximizing the return on the management time you invest in employee development.

Difficult Interactions:


Learn how to discuss and resolve difficult interactions in the workplace–whether with employees, peers, bosses, or even suppliers and customers.




Feedback Essentials:

Learn when and how to give effective positive or corrective feedback, how to offer feedback upward, and how to receive feedback.
Global Collaboration:


Learn critical skills required to manage a cross-cultural collaboration, including negotiating, building trust, overcoming language barriers, and navigating the geographical and technological challenges of working across continents.



Learn how to identify the particular skill set needed for a job, and then how to research and interview leading candidates until you find the one who best fills your need.
Leading and Motivating:


Learn about the essential tasks of leadership: setting direction, aligning people, and motivating others. Learn how to recognize the skills and characteristics of effective leaders, create an inspiring vision, and energize people to support and work toward your goals.


Performance Appraisal:


Learn how to prepare for, conduct, and follow up on performance evaluations–in ways that link employee performance to your company’s and group’s goals.
Retaining Employees:


Learn strategies for attracting and keeping top performers, how to handle common obstacles to retention such as burnout and work/life imbalance, and how to develop programs that address the diverse needs and interests of your workforce.
Team Leadership:


Learn how to establish a team with the right mix of skills and personalities and create a culture that promotes collaborative work, steps to leading an effective team and includes innovative, easy-to-implement self-evaluation tools.



Team Management:


Learn how to diagnose and overcome common problems – such as poor communication and interpersonal conflict – that can impede team progress, learn to take corrective measures to remove team problems and improve team performance.
Virtual Teams:


Learn how to create concrete suggestions for forming virtual teams, including assessing their technology and communication needs, structuring the team to build trust, and keeping the team on track.




Learn about the budget process, different types of budgets, and common budgeting problems–so you can allocate resources wisely to meet your goals.
Business Case Development:


Learn how to create an effective business case, from defining the opportunity and analyzing alternatives to presenting your final recommendations.
Business Plan Development:


Learn the process of preparing an effective plan for a business proposal, applicable to launching a new internal product as well as seeking funding for a new start-up business.


Crisis Management:


Learn a practical, hands-on method for looking at crises–from developing a crises audit to avoid and prepare for crises, to managing an actual crisis, to learning from past events.


Customer Focus:


Learn how to target the right customers and build their long-term loyalty by developing systems for learning about–and responding to–their needs.




Decision Making:


Learn how to identify underlying issues related to a decision, generate and evaluate multiple alternatives, and then communicate and implement your decision.




Learn how to manage diversity to extract maximum value from your employees’ differences — including how to recruit diverse talent, resolve diversity-related conflicts, and communicate with employees and customers from other cultures.


Ethics at Work:


Learn how to identify and execute sound choices based on ethical standards and how building a culture of integrity and cultivating an environment of trust among employees, customers, and other stakeholders lays a foundation for sustained success.


Finance Essentials:


Learn the essential concepts of finance–budgeting, forecasting, and planning, for managers who are not financial managers.


Innovation and Creativity:


Learn how to manage an intellectually diverse work group and their environment to produce more–and better–ideas that encourage innovation when developing products and work processes.


Innovation Implementation:


Learn how to implement an innovation from crafting a vision statement to gaining support and managing resistance and turn an idea into reality.


Marketing Essentials:


Learn the fundamentals that will help you better understand the importance of marketing and how it relates to you, especially for non-marketing managers.




Learn how to become an effective negotiator, the negotiation process: assessing your interests as well as those of the other party, developing opportunities that create value, avoiding common barriers to agreement, and implementing strategies to make the negotiation process run smoothly.


Performance Measurement:


Learn how to review financial and non-financial measures used in all areas of organizational performance, addresses both standalone measures (including ROI, EVA, and BET) and measurement frameworks such as dashboards, quality models, and the Balanced Scorecard, systematic processes for tracking performance of initiatives.


Persuading Others:


Learn the art and science behind successful persuasion, changing others’ attitudes, beliefs, or behavior to create win-win solutions, accomplishing work through others rather than simply issue orders.
Process Improvement:


Learn what business processes are; why improving them is essential; and how to carry out a business process improvement BPI) initiative.


Project Management:


Learn the nuts and bolts of project management, including project planning, budgeting, team-building, execution, and risk analysis, useful tools and techniques such as GANTT and PERT charts, Work Breakdown Structure, and variance analysis.


Strategic Thinking:


Learn how to shape and execute organizational strategy, analyzing opportunities, challenges, and the potential consequences of high-level action plans, addresses identification of broad patterns and trends, creative thinking, analysis of complex information, and prioritization of actions


What is Competence

June 21st, 2016 No comments


 core-competencyCompetencies comprise the knowledge, skills, values and attributes demonstrated through behavior that results in competent and superior performance. Competency describes what superior performers actually do on a job that produces superior results.


Motives: things a person constantly thinks about or wants which result   in action

Traits: physical characteristics and consistent responses to situation or information

Self-concept: a person’s attitudes, values, or self-image

Knowledge: information that a person has in specific content areas

Skills: the ability to perform a certain mental or physical task



  • Threshold competencies
  • Differentiating competencies
  • Behavioral competencies


  • Threshold competencies

               The characteristics required by a jobholder to perform a job effectively are called threshold competencies. E.g. for the position of a typist it is necessary to have primary knowledge about typing, which is a threshold competency.

  • Differentiating competencies

The characteristics, which differentiate superior performers from average performers, come under this category; such characteristics are not found in average performers. E.g. knowledge of formatting is a competency that makes a typist to superior to others in performance, which is a differentiating competency.

  • Behavioral competencies

These refer to competencies that are required by people in terms of behavior. E.g. team working-the competency required by an employee working in a typing group in an office where they may be required to cover up for others as the work grows.

Classification of Competencies

Competencies can broadly be classified into two categories –


  • Basic competencies
Competencies = Basic Competencies + Professional Competencies
  • Professional competencies


Types of Basic Competencies

  1. Intellectual Competencies: Those which determine the intellectual ability of a person.
  2. Motivational Competencies: Those which determine the level of motivation in an individual.
  3. Emotional Competencies: Those which determine an individual’s emotional quotient.
  4. Social Competencies: Those that determine the level of social ability in a person. It has been proved by various scholars that all individuals have competencies. Only the combination and degree of these competencies differ from individual to individual. Hence, organizations have to identify the critical basic competencies required for individual employees to deliver their best in their organization. The importance of mapping the competencies proves critical for organizational success.


Types of professional competencies

Optimizing career prospects: this competence involves the ability to envision future opportunities, and having determined broadly defined goals, to create and make own chances. It represents a form of well – considered opportunism. To undertake optimizing process successfully, a particular set of skills and behavior need to be brought into play.

Career Planning – Plying to your Strength: In career planning of employees, four steps are involved. They are

  • Review how for their work are using their skills and satisfying their needs and interests.
  • Identify the own development needs and what is required for effective performance.
  • Obtain data from the experience of mentors, partners and other work colleagues
  • Anticipate future changes and prepare for job opportunities that might arise.
  • The development of career planning competence should go some way to help individuals to take ownership and management of their own career development

Engaging In personal Development: employers are no longer guarantee life long continuity of employment or upward career progression. Therefore, more attention is to be paid to personal development rather than career development alone. The forms of personal development vary, but the range I s increasing. For this purpose firstly, employee need to have a sufficient self awareness to review and identify their development needs. Secondly they need to be effective learners with a positive attitude towards the learning process. Learning seldom happens in a vacuum; it takes place in a social context and those in the workplace may need to gather around them a supportive network in order to understand personal development activity of a challenging nature.

Balancing work and Non-work: the concern to balance work and non work is clearly a function of career stage. Being able to define one’s own work priorities and maintain one’s motivation in the absence of externally defined checks on performance become increasingly important. The issue of balancing work and non-work is problematic because of the competing demands of work and personal life. The competence to balance work and nonworking is required by all those in the workplace because the relationship between the two is never static, but ever changing.



Competency Mapping is a process of identifying the key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes (i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment) of the organization.


Models for competency mapping

A competency mapping is a description of skills, traits, experiences and knowledge required for a person to be effective in a job. There are three models in mapping the competencies described as follows:


This model uses the data obtained from existing job descriptions and job analysis. The data pertaining to a class of jobs, for example all sale representatives will be consolidated and key features will be identified to convert them into competency traits. The general features like organizational mission, objectives and culture related competence would be added to build a competency model for a particular type of employee.


There are three steps in this. In the first step, Competencies required for organizational function will be identified. Secondly these competencies will be classified into technical, social, marketing, management, finance and general. In the third step, Combination of competencies will be grouped to draw a particular role like finance manager, technical manager, quality manager like wise.


This is the traditional, time tested and commonly used method. A position that is most important and being performed well will be identified from a class of positions (Jobs). Data will be obtained observing its incumbent while performing the job, discussing with him/ her and other related departments, past records, decisions taken by that person, formal job description etc. the data so obtained will be used to build competency model for that particular position.


The availability of right quality and quantity of management competence is the key factor in business success of organisations. This realization struck many organisations during the current decade and effort made to tone up their managers. A common issue across all the organisations is, managers should be equipped with what kind of competencies. It is also a fact that managers must possess the competencies specific to their organizational need and environment. According to Andrew May there is a competence set that is applicable to all organizations and he illustrated them in his paper titled           “Developing Management Competencies for fast changing organisations”.

These are:

  1. Operations Management
  2. Managing Time effectively such as control of time scheduling and project control
  3. Planning and decision making consisting controlling planning, option evaluation and evaluation of plan performance
  4. Managing change consisting Identifying Improvement opportunities, Formulating change objective and Monitoring and evaluating change
  5. Quality management consisting quality measurement, conditions monitoring and diagnostics and systems control
  6. People Management
  7. Team leadership indicating leadership style, structured team, delegation, counseling and meeting participation
  8. Performance management consists of assessing competencies, job design and review, target setting and review , and motivation of staff
  9. Influencing others like planning process management and negotiating.
  10. Legal issues of employment that includes health and safety, recruitment and employment conditions, and industrial relations
  11. Financial Management
  12. Financial controls that includes Cost Monitoring, Financial Statement Analysis, Results preparation, and financial system awareness.
  13. Financial planning Including Investment appraisal, System development, and managing outsourcing
  14. Information Management
  15. Communication that includes Presenting Information, Selling ideas and behavior interpretation.
  16. Marketing
  17. Marketing consisting of marketing strategies
  18. Behavior competencies
  19. This includes Entrepreneurial, Creative thinking, Management synergy, Logical thinking, and Analytical ability



Compensation of an employee consists of mainly three components, the base wage or salary, incentives and benefits. Base wage or salary forms the basis for calculating or determining the total compensation of an employee.

There are three different concepts of wages: the minimum wage, the fair wage and the living wage. The minimum wage is the least of them all and the living wage, the highest. Minimum wage is the base wage that an employee has to be paid to fulfill his basic needs and provide basic amenities for his family. The fair wage takes into consideration the paying capacity of the employer. The living wage, which is the highest of the three, is aimed at providing a comfortable living for the employee and his family. It includes providing health, educational and social facilities. Traditional wage plans include the piece-wage plan, based on the units produced by the employee and the time-wage plan, based on the total working time of the employee. Modern wage plans include skill-based wage plan, competency based wage plan.


The design of most compensation programs reward employees for carrying out their tasks, duties and responsibilities. The job requirements determine which employees have higher base rates. Employees receive more for doing jobs that require a greater variety of tasks, more knowledge and skills, greater physical effort, or more demanding working conditions. However, some organizations are emphasizing competencies rather than tasks. A number of organizations are paying employees for the competencies they demonstrate rather than just of the specific task performed. Paying for competencies rewards employees to exhibit more versatility and continue to develop their competencies. In knowledge based pay (KBP) or skill based pay (SBP) systems, employees start at a base level of pay and receive increases as they learn to do other jobs or gain other skills and therefore become more valuable to the employer. For example, a power loom operates single color, two color, four color, six color and multicolor weaves. The more colors, the more skill is required of the power loom operator. Under a KBP or SBP system, the operator increases his or her pay as they learn to operate the more complex processes like four colors, six colors and multi color weaves, even though sometimes they may be running only two color weaves.

The success of the competency based pay plans depends on the managerial commitment to a philosophy different from the traditional one in organizations. This approach places far more emphasis on training employees and supervisors. Also, workflow must be adapted to allow workers to move from job to job as needed. When an organization moves to a competency-based system, considerable time must be spent identifying the required competencies for various jobs. Then each block of competencies must be priced using market data. Progression of employees must be possible, and they must be paid appropriately for all their competencies. Any limitations on the number of people who can acquire more competencies should be identified. Training in the appropriate competencies is particularly critical. Also, a competency based system needs to acknowledge or certify employees as they acquire certain competencies, and then to verify the maintenance of those competencies. Hence this type of pay system requires significant investment of management time and commitment.


Outcomes of Competency Based Pay System

The benefits of the competency based pay system can be analyzed under two categories

(i) Organization related outcomes and

(ii) Employee related outcomes, which are discussed below.

Organization Related Outcomes

  1. Greater work flexibility
  2. Increased work effectiveness
  3. Fewer bottlenecks of work flow
  4. Increased worker output per hour
  5. More career enhancement opportunities
  6. Increased internal supply of work force
  7. Undisturbed work flow
  8. Enhanced organizational learning

Employee Related Outcomes

  1. Enhanced employee understanding of the organizational “big picture”
  2. Greater employee self management capabilities
  3. Greater employee commitment
  4. Greater employee self enhancement
  5. Improved employee satisfaction
  6. Increased employee motivation
  7. Increased employee participation in training activities
  8. Increased individual learning
  9. Better and equipped work force
  10. Employee can withstand change in a better way
  11. With increased skill sets, employee feels confident.


Pay Openness

Another equity issue concerns the degree of openness or secrecy that organizations allow regarding their pay systems. Pay information kept secret in closed-systems includes how much others make, what raises others have received and even what pay grades and ranges exist in the organization.

A growing number of organizations are opening up their pay systems to some degree by informing employees of compensation policies, providing a general description of the compensation system, and indicating where an individual’s pay is within a pay grade. Such information allows employees to make more accurate equity comparisons. The crucial element in an open pay system is that managers be able to explain satisfactorily the pay differences that exist.

External Equity

If an employer does not provide compensation that employees view as equitable in relation to the compensation provided to employees performing similar jobs in other organizations, that organization is likely to experience higher turnover. Other drawbacks include greater difficulty in recruiting qualified and high-demand individuals. Also, by not being competitive the employers are more likely to attract and retain individuals with less knowledge, skills, and abilities, resulting in lower overall organizational performance. Organizations track external equity by using pay surveys.

%d bloggers like this: